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Nickel Alloy

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Nickel Alloy

Nickel alloys are a group of metallic materials that primarily consist of nickel as the main element, along with various other alloying elements such as chromium, iron, copper, molybdenum, and more. Nickel alloys are known for their exceptional resistance to corrosion, heat, and wear, making them suitable for a wide range of applications across various industries.

A few examples of commonly used nickel alloy grades:

Inconel 600

Inconel 625

Hastelloy C276

Monel 400

Alloy 825

Nickel 200/201

Incoloy 800/800H/800HT

Alloy 20


● Inconel 600 (UNS N06600)

Alloy 600 is a nickel chromium iron alloy used for applications which require resistance to corrosion and heat. The alloy also has excellent mechanical properties and presents the desirable combination of high strength and good workability under a wide range of temperatures.

Chemical Composition

CCrCuFeMgNSSi
MaxMaxMaxMinMaxMax
0.1514.0 – 17.00.506.00 – 10.001.0072.00.0150.50

Design Features

  • ● High nickel content offers excellent resistance to corrosion by many organic and inorganic compounds.
  • ● Virtually immune to chlorideon stress corrosion cracking.
  • ● Chromium confers resistance to sulfur compounds and provides resistance to oxidizing conditions at high temperatures or in corrosive solutions.
  • ● Alloy 600 is not precipitative hardenable, it is hardened and strengthened only by cold work.
  • ● Good for a variety of applications involving temperatures from cryogenic to above 2000 ̊ F.

Typical Applications

  • ● Steam generators
  • ● Chemical processing
  • ● Food processing
  • ● Superheaters
  • ● Jet engines
  • ● Electronic parts

Features: High resistance to corrosion, oxidation, and stress-corrosion cracking. Good mechanical properties at high temperatures.

Applications: Aerospace, chemical processing, furnace components, heat treatment equipment, nuclear reactors.


● Inconel 625 (UNS N06625)

Inconel 625 alloy is a solid solution strengthened nickel-based deformation high temperature alloy with molybdenum and niobium as the main reinforcing elements, with excellent corrosion and oxidation resistance.

Chemical Composition

Alloy

Ni

Cr

Mo

Nb

Fe

Al

Ti

C

Mn

Si

Co

P

S

Inconel 625

-

20-23

8-10

3.15-4.15

≤5

≤0.4

≤0.4

≤0.1

≤0.5

≤0.5

≤1

≤0.015

≤0.015

Physical Property

Density

8.4 g/cm

Melting Point

1290-1350℃

Mechanical Property

Alloy State

Tensile Strength

Rm N/mm

Yield Strength

RP0.2 N/mm

Extensibility

A5 %

Hardness

HB

Solid Melting State

760

345

30

≤220

Features: Excellent resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion, and corrosion in various environments. High strength and toughness.

Applications: Aerospace, marine engineering, chemical processing, oil and gas production, nuclear and power generation.


● Hastelloy C276 (UNS N10276)

Alloy C276 is an improved wrought version of Alloy C and has the same excellent corrosion resistance as the material but has greatly improved fabricability. It can be hot worked and cold formed by conventional procedures. It can be joined by all of the common welding methods and resists the formation of grain boundary precipitates in the weld-affected zone, thus making it suitable for most chemical process applications in the as-welded condition. It resists pitting and stress-corrosion cracking and is resistant to oxidation at temperatures up to 1900 ̊ F.

Chemical Composition

CCoCrFeMnMoNiPSSiVW
MaxMaxMaxMaxMaxMaxMax
0.012.514.5 – 16.54.0 – 7.01.015.0 – 17.0Bal0.040.030.080.353.0 – 4.5

Design Features

  • ● Outstanding corrosion resistance and oxidizing environments.
  • ● Excellent resistance to pitting and stress-corrosion cracking.
  • ● Maintains corrosion resistance in welded joints.
  • Typical Applications

  • ● Chemical processing
  • ● Pollution control
  • ● Pulp and paper
  • ● Other severe environments and/or conditions

Features: Outstanding corrosion resistance in a wide range of aggressive environments. Good resistance to crevice corrosion and pitting.

Applications: Chemical processing, pollution control, pulp and paper production, waste treatment, and flue gas desulfurization.


● Monel 400 (UNS N04400)

Alloy 400 is used for its excellent combination of corrosion resistance, strength, ductility and weldability. The corrosion resistance in seawater is especially good under high velocity conditions. Alloy 400 also is generally not susceptible to stress corrosion cracking.

Chemical Composition

CCuMnNiSSi
MaxMaxMinMaxMax
0.1528.0 – 34.01.2563.00.020.50

Design Features

  • ● Outstanding resistance to neutral and alkaline salt.
  • ● One of few metallic materials which can be used in contact with fluorine, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen fluoride and their derivatives.
  • ● High resistance to caustic alkalis.
  • ● Can be used in contact with dilute solutions of mineral acids such as sulfuric and hydrochloric, particularly if they are non-aerated.
  • ● Resistance to chloride induced stress corrosion cracking.
  • ● Good mechanical properties from sub-zero temperatures up to 1020 ̊ F.

Typical Applications

  • ● Feed-water and steam generator tubing in power plants
  • ● Brine heaters and evaporator bodies in salt plant
  • ● Sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid alkylation plant
  • ● Industrial heat exchangers
  • ● Cladding for crude oil distillation columns Splash-zone sheathing in offshore structures
  • ● Propeller and pump shafts for seawater service
  • ● Plant for uranium refining and isotope separation in the production of nuclear fuel
  • ● Pumps and valves used in the manufacture of chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • ● Monoethanolamine (MEA) reboiler tubes

Features: Strong resistance to corrosion, including seawater and acidic environments. Good mechanical properties at low and high temperatures.

Applications: Marine engineering, chemical and hydrocarbon processing equipment, valves and pumps, freshwater and seawater applications.


● Alloy 825 (UNS N08825)

Alloy 825 is a Nickel-iron-chromium alloy with additions of molybdenum, copper, and titanium. The alloys chemical composition provides exceptional resistance to many corrosive environments. The Nickel content is sufficient for resistance to Chloride-ion stress corrosion cracking. The nickel, combined with molybdenium and copper, also gives outstanding resistance to reducing environments such as those containing sulfuric and phosphoric acid. The molybdenium also aids resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion. The alloys Chromium content confers resistance to a variety of oxidizing substances such as nitric acid, nitrates and oxidizing salts. The titanium addition, with appropriate heat treatment, will stabilize the alloy against sensitization to intergranular corrosion.

Chemical Composition

CCrFeNiAlTiCuMo
MaxMaxMaxMax
0.0519.25 – 23.50.5038.0 – 46.00.20.6 – 1.21.5 – 3.02.5 – 3.5

Design Features

  • ● Good resistance to stress corrosion cracking.
  • ● Satisfactory resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion.
  • ● Good resistance to oxidizing and non-oxidizing hot acids.
  • ● Good mechanical properties at both room and elevated temperatures up to approximately 550 ̊ C (1020 ̊ F).
  • ● Permission for pressure-vessel use at wall temperature up to 425 C (800F).

Typical Applications

  • ● Components such as heating coils, tanks, crates, baskets and chains in sulfuric acid pickling plants
  • ● Fuel element dissolvers – the alloy with- stands the different media (sulfuric and nitrate acids, caustic hydroxide etc.) used in processing
  • ● Sea water cooled heat exchangers; offshore product piping systems tubes and components in sour gas service – resistant to chloride- ion stress-corrosion cracking
  • ● Pipelines carrying wet sulphur dioxide gas and pulp digesters in the papermaking process
  • ● Heat exchangers, evaporators, scrubbers, etc. used in phosphoric acid production
  • ● Air cooled heat exchangers used in the processing of liquid petroleum gas (LPG)

Features: High resistance to sulfuric and phosphoric acids, excellent corrosion resistance in various environments, good mechanical properties.

Applications: Chemical processing, oil and gas well piping, nuclear fuel reprocessing, pollution control equipment.


● Nickel 200/201 (UNS N02200/N02201)

Alloy 200 is an unalloyed wrought nickel. It offers excellent corrosion resistance, good mechanical, magnetic and magnetostrictive properties and useful thermal and electrical conductivities.

Chemical Composition

CCuMnNiSSi
MaxMaxMaxMinMaxMax
0.100.250.3099.20.0050.10

Design Features

  • ● Excellent resistance to many corrosive media from acid to alkaline.
  • ● Extremely high resistance to caustic alkalis including the molten state.
  • ● Resistance to mineral acids varies according to temperature and concentration and whether or not the solution is aerated. Corrosion resistance is better in non-aerated acids.
  • ● In acid, alkaline and neutral salt solutions, Alloy 200 shows good resistance, however, severe attack occurs in oxidizing salt solutions.
  • ● Resistant to all dry gases at room temperature.
  • Typical Applications

  • ● Food production, such as the handling of cool brines, fatty acids and fruit juices
  • ● Vessels in which fluorine is generated and reacted with hydrocarbons
  • ● Storing and transportation of phenol – immunity from any attack ensures absolute product purity
  • ● Manufacture and handling of sodium hydroxide, particularly at temperatures above 570 ̊ F
  • ● Production of viscose rayon and manufacture of soap – general corrosion resistance and virtual immunity of intergranular attack above 600 ̊ F
  • ● Production of hydrochloride and chlorination of hydrocarbons such as benzene, methane and ethane

Features: High thermal and electrical conductivity, excellent resistance to corrosion and alkalis.

Applications: Electronics and electrical engineering, chemical processing, food processing, and handling of caustic alkalis.


● Incoloy 800/800H/800HT (UNS N08800/N08810/N08811)

Alloy 800 is a widely used material of construction for equipment that must resist corrosion, have high strength or resist oxidation, carburization and other harmful effects of high-temperature exposure. For high temperature applications requiring optimum creep and rupture properties Alloy 800HP is used. The Chromium in the alloy imparts resistance to oxidation and corrosion. The high Nickel content maintains an austenitic structure so that the alloy is ductile. The Nickel also contributes resistance to scaling, general corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The iron content provides resistance to internal oxidation.

Chemical Composition

CCrFeNiAlTiAl/Ti
Min
.06-.1019.0-23.039.530.0-35.0.15-.60.15-.60.85-1.20

Design Features

Good creep-rupture properties at temperatures above 600 ̊ C (1110 ̊ F) without loss of ductility during long term use at temperatures below 700 ̊ C (1290 ̊ F), due to limitation of (Ti & Al) content to max 0.7%. However, by using 800HP with increased (Al & Ti) content to 1.2%, temperatures above 700 ̊ C (1290 ̊ F) can be achieved.

Good resistance to reducing oxidizing and nitriding atmospheres and to atmospheres which alternates between reducing and oxidizing conditions.

Metallurgical stability in long-term applications at high temperatures.

Typical Applications

  • ● Steam/hydrocarbon reforming for components such as pig tails, headers, collectors, manifolds, transfer piping, catalyst tubes, and quench system piping.
  • ● Ethylene pyrolsis tubing in convection and radiant sections – resistance to carburiza- tion and good mechanical properties
  • ● Ethylene dichloride cracking tubes – resist- ance to carburization and to dry hydrogen chloride and chlorine
  • ● Components, eg. Heat exchangers, piping systems, etc… in coal conversion plants
  • ● Steam generators tubing in helium coolant, high temperature reactor systems – high strength, resistance to helium and steam

Features:Good resistance to oxidation, carburization, and corrosion at elevated temperatures. High creep and rupture strength.

Applications:Heat-treating equipment, petrochemical and chemical processing, power generation, industrial furnaces.


● Alloy 20 (UNS N08020)

Alloy 20 is one of the so-called “Super” stainless steels that was designed for maximum resistance to acid attack. Its nickel, chromium, molybdenum and copper content contribute to its overall resistance to chlorideon stress corrosion cracking and general pitting attack. The alloy is stabilized with columbium to minimize carbide precipitation during welding. It has good mechanical properties and can be fabricated with comparative ease.

Although the alloy was designed for use in sulfuric acid related industries, it finds wide usage throughout the chemical processing industry. It also is used for processing pharmaceuticals, food, gasoline, solvents, plastics, explosives, synthetic fibers and many other products.

Chemical Composition

CCbCrCuMnMoNiPSSiTa
Max8 TimesMaxMaxMaxMax8 Times
0.07Carbon – 1.0019.0 – 21.03.30 – 4.02.02.0 – 3.032.0 – 38.00.0450.0351.0Carbon – 1.00

Design Features

  • ● Superior resistance to stress-corrosion cracking in boiling 20 to 40% sulfuric acid.
  • ● Excellent general corrosion resistance to sulfuric acid.
  • ● Excellent resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking.
  • ● Excellent mechanical properties and fabricability.
  • ● Minimal carbide precipitation during welding.

Typical Applications

  • ● Chemical and allied industries
  • ● Food and dye production
  • ● Heat exchangers
  • ● SO 2 scrubbers and other severe environments
  • ● Tanks
  • ● Pickling racks
  • ● Valves